Bangladesh, a vibrant country with a burgeoning population and bustling urban areas, has crafted a diverse array of roads to meet the unique demands of various modes of transportation. These roads can be categorized into five distinctive types based on their speed and accessibility: freeways, expressways, highways, intercity roads, and local streets. 

Freeways: The Fastest and Most Controlled Roads 

Freeways are the fastest and most controlled roads in Bangladesh, designed for high-speed and long-distance travel. Serving as access-controlled highways, they regulate vehicle entry and exit through ramps and interchanges. Freeways ensure an uninterrupted flow of traffic by avoiding intersections, signals, and railway crossings. With a minimum speed limit of 45 km/h and a maximum limit of 120 km/h¹, freeways typically consist of four lanes, two in each direction, separated by a median or barrier. Equipped with crash barriers, reflective road markers, and emergency lanes, freeways are the safest roads and are predominantly used by private cars, buses, and trucks, with restrictions on pedestrians, cyclists, and slow-moving vehicles. Connecting major cities like Dhaka, Chittagong, Khulna, and Rajshahi, freeways contribute to efficient regional mobility. 

Expressways: The Superior and Eco-friendly Roads 

Expressways, also access-controlled roads, provide fast and comfortable travel while incorporating additional features to emphasize their superiority and eco-friendliness. In addition to dedicated lanes for cars, buses, motorcycles, and separate paths for pedestrians and cyclists, expressways feature designated signals, intersections, toll plazas, and service areas. With a minimum speed limit of 40 km/h and a maximum limit of 100 km/h², these roads aim to reduce traffic congestion, fuel consumption, greenhouse gas emissions, and noise pollution. Expressways cater to vehicles with high acceleration and performance, while restricting heavy load vehicles, cargo transport, and slow-moving vehicles. Furthermore, expressways offer scenic views and access to tourist attractions, making them ideal for recreational travel. Ongoing projects such as the Dhaka-Chittagong Expressway and the Dhaka-Mawa-Bhanga Expressway are set to enhance connectivity and regional development in Bangladesh. 

Highways: The Backbone and Lifeline of Bangladesh 

Highways, the most common and vital road type in Bangladesh, form the backbone and lifeline of the country’s transportation infrastructure. Designed to efficiently handle heavy volumes of motorized traffic, highways connect major cities, towns, and facilitate long-distance travel and the movement of goods and people. Constructed to international standards, highways feature multiple lanes, controlled access points, and essential safety measures. With a minimum speed limit of 30 km/h and a maximum limit of 80 km/h³, highways play a pivotal role in enhancing economic growth, regional integration, and social welfare. Enabling faster and more cost-effective transportation of raw materials, finished products, and passengers, highways contribute to improved quality of life and connectivity. All vehicles, except pedestrians and cyclists, utilize highways, which are divided into national highways and regional highways based on importance and function. 

InterCity Roads: The Main and Busy Roads 

Intercity roads are the primary routes for traffic within and between urban areas, acting as the main thoroughfares in Bangladesh. Also referred to as urban highways, these roads cater to moderate-speed traffic, carrying a significant volume of vehicles. Intercity roads consist of two or more lanes, separated by a median or divider. While they possess some access control mechanisms like signals, signs, and roundabouts, they also have numerous intersections and crossings with other roads, railway lines, and pedestrians. With a minimum speed limit of 20 km/h and a maximum limit of 60 km/h, these roads allow access to public transport, schools, markets, and other essential amenities, benefiting low-income and vulnerable groups who rely on them for transportation. Intercity roads are often congested and noisy due to high traffic demand and limited capacity but remain crucial for urban connectivity. 

Local Streets: The Lowest and Least Controlled Roads 

Local streets serve as secondary routes within residential and commercial areas, providing access to individual properties and buildings. These streets, sometimes referred to as access streets, contain one or two lanes in each direction, without any median or divider. Unlike other road types, local streets lack access control, resulting in numerous intersections, crossings, and interactions with other roads, railways, and pedestrians. With a minimum speed limit of 10 km/h and a maximum limit of 40 km/h⁴, they enhance the livability and walkability of cities, encouraging people to rely less on motorized vehicles. Local streets accommodate all types of vehicles, as well as pedestrians and cyclists, and play a significant role in reducing traffic congestion while improving urban environments. 

In conclusion, Bangladesh has crafted a comprehensive network of roads designed to meet the needs of different traffic types and ensure safe and efficient travel. By incorporating freeways, expressways, highways, intercity roads, and local streets into its infrastructure, the country prioritizes connectivity, accessibility, and sustainability. As Bangladesh continues to develop its road network, it must focus on maintaining and expanding these road types to enhance connectivity, promote sustainable transportation, and create a greener and more livable Bangladesh.